Power Systems Analysis

Power Systems Analysis & Studies

Power Grid Solutions provides a wide range of services for both Static and Dynamic Power Systems Analysis and Connection Studies. Our team have worked on a variety of projects within Australia, South East Asia, the Middle East and Africa. From on-site data collection, expert testing, to detailed design studies, we have a proven track record in planning and optimisation, relay configuration and programming, short circuits and load flow studies.

PGS provides industry leading power systems analysis services for electrical infrastructure projects. Our Power System Studies will analyse, identify and confirm the adequacy of your equipment and systems.

We can assist in operational performance and future planning, determine optimum operating configurations and compare alternatives to support capital projects operation and expenditure.

We assess electrical infrastructure and provide an analysis to utilise resources most productively.

WHAT IS A POWER SYSTEMS ANALYSIS ?

This is a critical process that involves studying, modelling, and analysing the behaviour of electrical power systems. It encompasses a wide range of methodologies aimed at ensuring the reliable, efficient, and safe operation of power systems.

An analysis uses mathematical models and computational tools to study and analyse how an electrical power system behaves. It helps ensure that the system operates reliably and efficiently. Power system analysis involves collecting data about the power system, such as information about generators, transmission lines, transformers, and loads. This data is used to create mathematical models that represent the components of the system. The analysis includes evaluating factors like power flows, voltage levels, and system stability. By simulating different scenarios and using optimization techniques, power system analysis helps identify potential issues, optimise the system’s performance, and make informed decisions about its operation and future development.

Power system analysis demands various components, including power load flow analysis, power systems modelling and fault analysis, power stability analysis, and power system reliability analysis. These techniques utilise mathematical models, simulations, and computer-aided tools to assess the performance, diagnose problems, and optimise the operation of electrical power systems.
If we neglect power system analysis, several adverse consequences can occur. One potential outcome is an unreliable power supply and that can cause problems. Like: frequent power outages, voltage fluctuations, and inadequate power quality. Without analysing the system’s load flow, it becomes challenging to anticipate and manage power demand, resulting in overloading or underutilization of transmission and distribution infrastructure.

Moreover, a lack of fault analysis can lead to cascading failures within the power grid. Faults, such as short circuits or equipment failures, can escalate and spread across the network, potentially causing blackouts or severe damage to equipment. The absence of stability analysis may make the system susceptible to instability issues, such as voltage collapse or oscillations, which can disrupt the overall functioning of the power system. Not only would it be incredibly inconvenient to have our electricity disrupted but it can also be quite dangerous as it can cause major fire hazards to the community.

  • IMPORTANCE OF POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS IN OUR COMMUNITY
    One might think why is power flow analysis important to our community. Simply because it ensures a reliable and efficient supply of electricity. By studying and analysing the power system, potential problems can be identified and addressed proactively, reducing the risk of power outages and disruptions. Power system analysis helps maintain stable voltage levels, minimising equipment failures and protecting sensitive electrics. It also enables optimal energy management, reducing costs for both the utility provider and consumers.
    Here are just a few pointers of why power systems analysis is important:
  • Reliability by identifying potential problems and weaknesses in the system, the analysis enables proactive measures to be taken to prevent any failures and minimise any power downtime. This leads to enhanced reliability, uninterrupted power usage, and increased customer satisfaction.
  • Optimal Operation through power load flow analysis, it helps in optimising the operation of the power grid. It helps balance the generation and demand, determines the optimal dispatch of power, and minimises transmission losses. By maximising efficiency, power system analysis contributes to cost savings and promotes sustainable energy practices.

 

  • Planning and Expansion plays a vital role in the planning and expansion of electrical infrastructure. By simulating future scenarios and estimating load growth, analysis helps in determining the need for new power plants, substations, or transmission lines. This proactive approach ensures that the power system keeps pace with the community’s evolving energy demands, preventing capacity shortages and facilitating sustainable development.plays a vital role in the planning and expansion of electrical infrastructure. By simulating future scenarios and estimating load growth, analysis helps in determining the need for new power plants, substations, or transmission lines. This proactive approach ensures that the power system keeps pace with the community’s evolving energy demands, preventing capacity shortages and facilitating sustainable development.

 

  • Integration of Renewable Energy as the community increasingly adopts renewable energy sources, power systems analysis becomes even more critical. It assists in assessing the impact of renewable energy integration on the grid, managing intermittent generation, and ensuring grid stability. Through analysis, challenges related to voltage regulation, grid balancing, and power quality can be addressed, fostering a smooth transition to a greener energy future.

 

HOW POWER SYSTEMS MAKES OUR LIVES EASIER

Compared to old times, we are spoiled with electrical power that make our everyday lives so much easier to live, in fact we all take electrical power for granted.

Imagine how our ancestors lived when there was no electricity. With candles keeping their houses lit up in the night, food being cooked with flame and wood, clothes being washed with bare hands, and enduring the weather regardless if it’s hot or cold. Nowadays, we only see this almost prehistoric kind of living through movies. Those basic house chores are now more easily manageable because of the electricity we use every day. With our lightbulbs being turned on at night, the stove or microwave to make our meals, washing machines and dryers to keep our clothes clean, and turning on our AC or heater to keep our temperatures

SUMMARY

Power system analysis is an indispensable process for ensuring the reliable, efficient, and safe operation of electrical power systems. Neglecting this vital analysis can result in unreliable power supply, system failures, and severe safety hazards. By conducting thorough analysis, our community can benefit from improved reliability, optimal operation, enhanced safety, efficient planning, and successful integration of renewable energy sources – helping our strive toward a greener planet.

Embracing power system analysis as a fundamental practice will enable us to build resilient and sustainable power systems that meet the evolving needs of our community.

DETERMINING FEASIBILITY, SAFETY, IMPACTS AND ADEQUACY.

Power System Analysis Studies

Learn more about the available studies:

We will determine fault levels throughout the power systems. The short circuit study will be used to:

  • Calculate minimum and maximum fault levels throughout the power system
  • Confirm the adequacy of your existing switchgear to cope with short circuits
  • Ensure switchgear is adequately rated throughout the power system
  • Select the correct rating of your switchgear before purchase
  • Investigate short circuits related incidents at site
  • Identify underrated equipment before extensive system damage can occur
  • Increase facility reliability, equipment protection and personnel safety
  • Aid in future expansion plans by providing accurate fault current calculations at each location in the system, thereby allowing properly rated equipment to be specified.

Depending on your needs, we will evaluate and confirm the rating of your components such as cables and transformers to ensure that they are adequately rated for load current. The load flow study will:

  • Calculate maximum demand & voltage drops
  • Select appropriate cable sizes
  • Evaluate power factor correction, calculate real and reactive power loses
  • Confirm motor start-up and its impact on the rest of the system
  • Reduce your electric bill by determining the location and size of power factor correction capacitors
  • Aid in future planning and present day operation by demonstrating how the electrical system will perform during normal and emergency operating conditions
  • Determine the proper transformer tap settings so that the correct voltage will be present at motors and other loads during full load and no load conditions
  • Identify under-utilised equipment to which will allow for future load growth
  • Identify overloaded equipment
  • Increase the distribution system operating efficiency and determine the most optimum operating configuration
  • Evaluate and compare network expansion & alternatives to support capital projects operation & expenditures(OPEX and CAPEX).

Depending on your needs, we will evaluate and confirm the rating of your components such as cables and transformers to ensure that they are adequately rated for load current. The load flow study will:

  • Flash hazard boundary
  • Amount of incident energy
  • Shock hazard
  • Limited approach
  • Restricted approach
  • Prohibited approach
  • Adjust protection settings to reduce the PPE requirements
  • Increase facility reliability, equipment protection, and personnel safety
  • Determine the level of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to be worn
  • Investigate alternative options (modern engineering controls) to ensure adequate safety on site, and evaluate cost effective arc flash hazard control measures
  • Provide the required PPE labels throughout your site.

We will identify, analyse harmonics generated by non-linear equipment. The study will determine if your facility exceeds the power supply authority limits. We will then determine harmonic mitigation techniques to reduce the harmonics including phase shifting, zig-zag transformers and harmonic filter installation. A Harmonic study complying with methodologies outlined in IEC 61000 & IEE519 standards will be used to:

  • Identify the source of harmonics (internal or external to your facility)
  • Evaluate the impact of non-linear loads (harmonic sources) on facility distribution systems
  • Evaluate compliance with power supply authority
  • Verify the proper size and placement of capacitors when harmonic sources are present
  • Verify the proper size, configuration and placement of filters, if necessary
  • Size harmonic filters based on present harmonics in your system
  • Determine the economic benefits of PFC filter banks based on current tariff structure and your actual bills.
  • Determine the impact of PFC filter banks switching on the rest of the power systems.

We will determine the impact of motor starting throughout the power systems. The motor acceleration study will:

  • Determine voltage drops during motor-starting
  • Confirm motor start-up using static modelling
  • Confirm motor start-up using dynamic modelling
  • Investigate multi-sequence motor starting
  • Evaluate soft-staring & VFD frequency control motor starting
  • Evaluate load & generation transitioning.

We will model all protective devices in your system including Fuses, MCBs, MCCBs, ACBs and modem digital protection relays. The protection coordination study will:

  • Ensure all electrical equipment is adequately protected against overloads, fault currents & earth fault, evaluate and confirm adequacy and performance of protection CTs
  • Confirm coordination between upstream and downstream devices using graphical Time Current Curves (TCCs) and sequence of operation analyser to avoid and totally eliminate costly spurious trips in the power system
  • Determine optimal settings of all protective equipment
  • Evaluate impacts of motor starting on protection settings
  • Calculate relays settings to cater for impacts of infeeds and mutual couplings in parallel and T’d-feeders for HV & EHV systems.

We will undertake advanced power system studies to determine the feasibility of generator connection to the distribution network. The modelling process will include several types of simulation. Each simulation will be used to test the generator performance against a different group of requirements as outlined in the Technical Rules (NER). Depending on the size of the generator we will undertake the following studies:

  • Load flow study to assess over/under voltage, overloading, adequate active and reactive power reserves, operational constraints and precautions required;
  • Short circuit study to confirm fault rating of connected equipment and determine if the rating will be adequate or exceeded;
  • Stability study to determine how the power system operates during different disturbances, in particular how fast the protective devices will clear the fault before the generator and surrounding power system become unstable;
  • Power quality study to ensure that distorting loads do not cause unacceptable power quality in the power system.
  • Network black start study to ensure that the plant can be reinstated from system black out and demonstrating if it’s capable of doing this automatically without the grid or diesel generator supply.
  • Under-voltage ride through study to demonstrate that the renewable plant, when supplying the normal load, can ride through a 3-Phase fault at specific terminals on the reticulation network, such as at MV/LV main board terminals of step down transformer.
  • Generator reactive capability study to confirm that the reactive power requirements of the generator are not excessive or if switched capacitor banks need to be provided at the generator terminals.
  • Frequency control study to conform that the power plant governor droop settings are coordinated with existing generator governor droop settings and demonstrate that the plant block load acceptances and rejections occur in a stable manner. This study investigates frequency stability issues that may arise with different generator combination: Wind, Solar, Diesel generator and Battery systems.

We will determine if your substation grounding grid design is safe. We will limit touch and step potential to values below recommended limits for safe operation and protection of personnel. Using IEEE 80-2000 & IEC 60479 standards, we will:

  • Analyse earth grid model from field measurements
  • Analyse grid and earth potential
  • Analyse multiple ground systems
  • Analyse the potential rise for each grounding system including neighbouring passive grids or rods
  • Calculate maximum permissible touch and step voltages
  • Evaluate danger points in the substation and outside the substation
  • Calculate voltage, step voltage ad earth potential rise
  • Determine the size of earthing conductors.

Completed Works

Learn more about our completed studies:

Power System Studies At A Glance

  • Utilising Software such as: ETAP, SKM PTW, DigSILENT PowerFactory, PSCAD, PSS/E, CDEGS, EMTP RV
  • Short circuits & load flow studies
  • Motor and generator starting studies: static & dynamic
  • Dynamic studies
  • Protection coordination studies
  • Arc flash studies
  • Power quality studies: Site investigation, PFC & HF bank sizing
  • Grid connection studies: renewable & embedded generation and hybrids
  • Switching studies, Insulation coordination & lightning protection studies
  • Earth Grid Analysis
  • HV/LV Reticulation & Cable Rating studies
  • Relay configuration & programming

Power Grid Solutions Dedicated to Technical Excellence